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Combining JTAG Boundary Scan with functional testing

Testing of medium-complexity printed circuit boards (PCBs) at the end of production has traditionally been carried out using in-circuit testing (ICT) and functional testing. Other test methods, such as costly optical and X-ray inspection, are often necessary to verify that BGAs are correctly placed. JTAG boundary scan however, can replace ICT as the natural counterpart to functional testing and make optical and X-rayinspection unnecessary.